• 小果

【PTE干货】PTE 高频summarize spoken test精析 (三:Absolute advantage)

Updated: Sep 5, 2019

Absolute advantage

主要内容介绍:

这段录音讲述了经济学和贸易

中的一个重要概念:绝对优势


笔果还原听力原文:

Comparative advantage is the theory of trade. It explains why people trade and which goods people should trade if they want to maximize their well-being. It is actually useful to understand comparative advantage to begin with a false theory. A very plausible, but incorrect theory of trade, namely the theory of absolute advantage. So let’s consider a simple model. Let’s suppose that labor is the only goods that used in production, and we can produce computers or shirts. Now let’s suppose that in Mexico, it takes 12 units of labor to produce 1 computer, and again in Mexico, it takes 2 units of labor to produce 1 shirt. Now let’s compare it with the United States, to make it simple, we’ll suppose that in United States, it only takes 1 units of labor to make 1 computer, and 1 unit of labor to create 1 shirt. Now, from the absolute advantage theory of trade, it should, it may seem obvious that there should be no trade here, it may seem obvious that the united states will outcompete Mexico on all margins. After all, the United States in this example, is much more productive at producing computers, and also more productive at producing shirts than Mexico. So this is the case that we might think that the United States is so much better at producing both computers and shirts, that certainly there is no reason for the United States to trade with Mexico, its less productive neighbor.


听力词汇/词组:

Comparative advantage 相对优势

Maximize one’s well-being 利益/幸福度最大化

False theory 错误的理论

Simple model 简单的模版

Let’s suppose 假设一下

Make it simple  简单一些说

Absolute advantage 绝对优势

Outcompete 胜过,超过

margin 利润,利益

neighbor 邻居


SST要点:

1.写出这段录音的主要内容:

关于

This recording is about the theory of absolute advantage and its example evolving the United States and Mexico.

2. 介绍理论,写出例子:

The speaker mentioned that although comparative advantage guides people of trading, absolute advantage theory is a false yet plausible theory of trade. Here is a simple model:

+ example of the United States and Mexico trading computers and shirts.

3. 结论:(如果前面miss掉了某一项)

In conclusion, the example of absolute advantage could act as the initial theory we use to understand comparative advantage in trading.


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